Oct 122013
 

Cryptolocker Ransomware:  What You Need To Know!

 

MalwareBytes.org
by Joshua Cannell
October 8, 2013

 

FBI / Cryptolocker Ransomware: What You Need To Know

FBI / Cryptolocker Ransomware: What You Need To Know

 

Just last month, antivirus companies  discovered a new ransomware known as Cryptolocker.

This ransomware is particularly nasty because infected users are in danger of losing their personal files forever.

 

Cryptolocker Ransomware (view)

Cryptolocker Ransomware (view)

 

Spread through infected websites, this ransomware has been targeting companies through phishing attacks.

Cryptolocker will encrypt users’ files using asymmetric encryption, which requires both a public and private key.

The public key is used to encrypt and verify data, while private key is used for decryption, each the inverse of the other.

Below is an image from Microsoft depicting the process of asymmetric encryption.

 

asymmetric encryption.

asymmetric encryption.

 

The bad news is decryption is impossible unless a user has the private key stored on the cybercriminals’ server.

Currently, infected users are instructed to pay $300 USD to receive this private key.

Infected users also have a time limit to send the payment. If this time elapses, the private key is destroyed, and your files may be lost forever.

Files targeted are those commonly found on most PCs today; a list of file extensions for targeted files include:

3fr, accdb, ai, arw, bay, cdr, cer, cr2, crt, crw, dbf, dcr, der, dng, doc, docm, docx, dwg, dxf, dxg, eps, erf, indd, jpe, jpg, kdc, mdb, mdf, mef, mrw, nef, nrw, odb, odm, odp, ods, odt, orf, p12, p7b, p7c, pdd, pef, pem, pfx, ppt, pptm, pptx, psd, pst, ptx, r3d, raf, raw, rtf, rw2, rwl, srf, srw, wb2, wpd, wps, xlk, xls, xlsb, xlsm, xlsx

In some cases, it may be possible to recover previous versions of the encrypted files using System Restore or other recovery software used to obtain “shadow copies” of files. The folks at BleepingComputer have some additional insight on this found here.

 

REMOVAL:

Malwarebytes detects Cryptolocker infections as Trojan.Ransom, but it cannot recover your encrypted files due to the nature of asymmetric encryption, which requires a private key to decrypt files encrypted with the public key.

 

MalwareBytes detected Trojan

MalwareBytes detected Trojan

 


In order to make removal even easier, a video was also created to guide users through the process (courtesy of Pieter Arntz).

 

 

While Malwarebytes cannot recover your encrypted files post-infection, we do have options to prevent infections before they start.

Users of Malwarebytes Anti-Malware Pro are protected by malware execution prevention and blocking of malware sites and servers.

To learn more on how Malwarebytes stops malware at its source, check out this blog.

Free users will still be able to detect the malware if present on a PC, but will need to upgrade to Pro in order to access these additional protection options.

 

MalwareBytes Protected System

MalwareBytes Protected System

 

Backup:

Also, the existence of malware such as Cryptolocker reinforces the need to back up your personal files.

However, a local backup may not be enough in some instances, as Cryptolocker may even go after backups located on a network drive connected to an infected PC.

Cloud-based backup solutions are advisable for business professionals and consumers alike. Malwarebytes offers Malwarebytes Secure Backup, which offers an added layer of protection by scanning every file before it is stored within the cloud in an encrypted format (don’t worry, you can decrypt these).

 

MalwareBytes Secure Backup

MalwareBytes Secure Backup

 

To find out more on remove Cryptolocker, check out the official removal guide from Malwarebytes.

Direct Link:  http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:AALLcZNyITkJ:blog.malwarebytes.org/intelligence/2013/10/cryptolocker-ransomware-what-you-need-to-know/+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=firefox-a

 

 

 

 

Aug 192013
 

FBI spooks use MALWARE to spy on suspects’ Android mobes – report

Spear-phishing: It’s not just for the bad guys

The Register / UK
by Bill Ray
August 2, 2013

 

FBI spooks use MALWARE to spy on suspects' Android mobes - report

FBI spooks use MALWARE to spy on suspects’ Android mobes – report

 

The Federal Bureau of Investigation is using mobile malware to infect, and control, suspects’ Android handsets, allowing it to record nearby sounds and copy data without physical access to the devices.

That’s according to “former officers” interviewed by the Wall Street Journal ahead of privacy advocate Christopher Soghoian’s presentation at hacker-conflab Black Hat later today.

The FBI’s Remote Operations Unit has been listening in to desktop computers for years, explains the paper, but mobile phones are a relatively new target.

It would never work with tech-savvy suspects, though: suspects still need to infect themselves with the malware by clicking a dodgy link or opening the wrong attachment. This is why computer hackers are never targeted this way – they might notice and publicise the technique, said the “former officers”, who noted that in other cases it had proved hugely valuable.

Such actions do require judicial oversight, but if one is recording activities rather than communications, the level of authorisation needed is much reduced. A US judge is apparently more likely to approve reaching out electronically into a suspect’s hardware than a traditional wiretap, as the latter is considered a greater intrusion into their privacy.

Gaining control of that hardware still requires a hole to crawl through; ideally a zero-day exploit of which the platform manufacturer is unaware.

The WSJ cites UK-based lawful spook spyware supplier Gamma International as selling such exploits to the Feds. The company was recently in the news after allegations that it was also supplying dodgy governments with kit – allegedly including malware disguised as the Firefox browser.

Given the convergence of mobile and desktop, it’s no surprise to see desktop techniques being applied to mobile phone platforms by both hackers and law enforcement agencies.

The usual techniques of not opening unknown attachments or unsigned downloads should protect you against the FBI, just as it would against any spear-phishing attempt. But then again, if you know that, they probably wouldn’t try using it against you.

 

Direct Link:  http://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/08/02/fbi_staff_admit_hacking_android/

Aug 192013
 

Feds Are Suspects in New Malware That Attacks Tor Anonymity

 

WIRED / Threat Level
by Kevin Poulsen
August 5, 2013

Feds Are Suspects in New Malware That Attacks Tor Anonymity

Feds Are Suspects in New Malware That Attacks Tor Anonymity (Photo: Andrewfhart / Flickr)

 

Security researchers tonight are poring over a piece of malicious software that takes advantage of a Firefox security vulnerability to identify some users of the privacy-protecting Tor anonymity network.

The malware showed up Sunday morning on multiple websites hosted by the anonymous hosting company Freedom Hosting. That would normally be considered a blatantly criminal “drive-by” hack attack, but nobody’s calling in the FBI this time. The FBI is the prime suspect.

“It just sends identifying information to some IP in Reston, Virginia,” says reverse-engineer Vlad Tsyrklevich. “It’s pretty clear that it’s FBI or it’s some other law enforcement agency that’s U.S.-based.”

If Tsrklevich and other researchers are right, the code is likely the first sample captured in the wild of the FBI’s “computer and internet protocol address verifier,” or CIPAV, the law enforcement spyware first reported by WIRED in 2007.

Court documents and FBI files released under the FOIA have described the CIPAV as software the FBI can deliver through a browser exploit to gather information from the target’s machine and send it to an FBI server in Virginia. The FBI has been using the CIPAV since 2002 against hackers, online sexual predators, extortionists, and others, primarily to identify suspects who are disguising their location using proxy servers or anonymity services, like Tor.

The code has been used sparingly in the past, which kept it from leaking out and being analyzed or added to anti-virus databases.

The broad Freedom Hosting deployment of the malware coincides with the arrest of Eric Eoin Marques in Ireland on Thursday on an U.S. extradition request. The Irish Independent reports that Marques is wanted for distributing child pornography in a federal case filed in Maryland, and quotes an FBI special agent describing Marques as “the largest facilitator of child porn on the planet.”

Freedom Hosting has long been notorious for allowing child porn to live on its servers. In 2011, the hactivist collective Anonymous singled out Freedom Hosting for denial-of-service attacks after allegedly finding the firm hosted 95 percent of the child porn hidden services on the Tor network.

Freedom Hosting is a provider of turnkey “Tor hidden service” sites — special sites, with addresses ending in .onion — that hide their geographic location behind layers of routing, and can be reached only over the Tor anonymity network.

Tor hidden services are ideal for websites that need to evade surveillance or protect users’ privacy to an extraordinary degree – which can include human rights groups and journalists. But it also naturally appeals to serious criminal elements.

Shortly after Marques’ arrest last week, all of the hidden service sites hosted by Freedom Hosting began displaying a “Down for Maintenance” message. That included websites that had nothing to do with child pornography, such as the secure email provider TorMail.

Some visitors looking at the source code of the maintenance page realized that it included a hidden iframe tag that loaded a mysterious clump of Javascript code from a Verizon Business internet address located in Virginia.

By midday Sunday, the code was being circulated and dissected all over the net. Mozilla confirmed the code exploits a critical memory management vulnerability in Firefox that was publicly reported on June 25, and is fixed in the latest version of the browser.

Though many older revisions of Firefox are vulnerable to that bug, the malware only targets Firefox 17 ESR, the version of Firefox that forms the basis of the Tor Browser Bundle – the easiest, most user-friendly package for using the Tor anonymity network.

“The malware payload could be trying to exploit potential bugs in Firefox 17 ESR, on which our Tor Browser is based,” the non-profit Tor Project wrote in a blog post Sunday. “We’re investigating these bugs and will fix them if we can.”

The inevitable conclusion is that the malware is designed specifically to attack the Tor browser. The strongest clue that the culprit is the FBI, beyond the circumstantial timing of Marques’ arrest, is that the malware does nothing but identify the target.

 

The payload for the Tor Browser Bundle malware is hidden in a variable called “magneto”.

The payload for the Tor Browser Bundle malware is hidden in a variable called “magneto”.

The heart of the malicious Javascript is a tiny Windows executable hidden in a variable named “Magneto.” A traditional virus would use that executable to download and install a full-featured backdoor, so the hacker could come in later and steal passwords, enlist the computer in a DDoS botnet, and generally do all the other nasty things that happen to a hacked Windows box.

But the Magneto code doesn’t download anything. It looks up the victim’s MAC address — a unique hardware identifier for the computer’s network or Wi-Fi card — and the victim’s Windows hostname. Then it sends it to the Virginia server, outside of Tor, to expose the user’s real IP address, and coded as a standard HTTP web request.

“The attackers spent a reasonable amount of time writing a reliable exploit, and a fairly customized payload, and it doesn’t allow them to download a backdoor or conduct any secondary activity,” says Tsyrklevich, who reverse-engineered the Magneto code.

The malware also sends, at the same time, a serial number that likely ties the target to his or her visit to the hacked Freedom Hosting-hosted website.

In short, Magneto reads like the x86 machine code embodiment of a carefully crafted court order authorizing an agency to blindly trespass into the personal computers of a large number of people, but for the limited purpose of identifying them.

But plenty of questions remain. For one, now that there’s a sample of the code, will anti-virus companies start detecting it?

Update 8.5.13 12:50:  According to Domaintools, the malware’s command-and-control IP address in Virginia is allocated to Science Applications International Corporation. Based in McLean, Virginia, SAIC is a major technology contractor for defense and intelligence agencies, including the FBI. I have a call in to the firm.

13:50  Tor Browser Bundle users who installed or manually updated after June 26 are safe from the exploit, according to the Tor Project’s new security advisory on the hack.

14:30:  SAIC has no comment.

15:10:  There are incorrect press reports circulating that the command-and-control IP address belongs to the NSA. Those reports are based on a misreading of domain name resolution records. The NSA’s public website, NSA.gov, is served by the same upstream Verizon network as the Tor malware command-and-control server, but that network handles tons of government agencies and contractors in the Washington DC area.

8.6.13 17:10:  SAIC’s link to the IP addresses may be an error in Domaintools’ records. The official IP allocation records maintained by the American Registry for Internet Numbers show the two Magneto-related addresses are not part of SAIC’s publicly-listed allocation. They’re part of a ghost block of eight IP addresses that have no organization listed. Those addresses trace no further than the Verizon Business data center in Ashburn, Virginia, 20 miles northwest of the Capital Beltway. (Hat tip: Michael Tigas)
Direct Link:  http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2013/08/freedom-hosting/

 

Jul 262013
 

Profile of Likely E-Mail Phishing Victims Emerges in Human Factors/Ergonomics Research


Science Daily

July 25, 2013

Profile of Likely E-Mail Phishing Victims Emerges in Human Factors/Ergonomics Research

Profile of Likely E-Mail Phishing Victims Emerges in Human Factors/Ergonomics Research

 

The author of a paper to be presented at the upcoming 2013 International Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting has described behavioral, cognitive, and perceptual attributes of e-mail users who are vulnerable to phishing attacks. Phishing is the use of fraudulent e-mail correspondence to obtain passwords and credit card information, or to send viruses.

In “Keeping Up With the Joneses: Assessing Phishing Susceptibility in an E-mail Task,” Kyung Wha Hong discovered that people who were overconfident, introverted, or women were less able to accurately distinguish between legitimate and phishing e-mails. She had participants complete a personality survey and then asked them to scan through both legitimate and phishing e-mails and either delete suspicious or spam e-mails, leave legitimate e-mails as is, or mark e-mails that required actions or responses as “important.”

“The results showed a disconnect between confidence and actual skill, as the majority of participants were not only susceptible to attacks but also overconfident in their ability to protect themselves,” says Hong. Although 89% of the participants indicted they were confident in their ability to identify malicious e-mails, 92% of them misclassified phishing e-mails. Almost 52% in the study misclassified more than half the phishing e-mails, and 54% deleted at least one authentic e-mail.

Gender, trust, and personality were correlated with phishing vulnerability. Women were less likely than men to correctly label phishing e-mails, and subjects who self-reported as “less trusting, introverts, or less open to new experiences” were more likely to delete legitimate e-mails.

Hong will continue to develop a user profile that can predict when and with whom phishing attacks are likely to be successful. Information gained in these studies will be used to design effective tools to prevent and combat phishing attacks.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

 


APA MLA

Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (2013, July 25). Profile of likely e-mail phishing victims emerges in human factors/ergonomics research. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 26, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2013/07/130725091238.htm

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead.

Direct Link:  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130725091238.htm

Jul 182013
 

Dropbox used by Chinese hackers to spread malware


TechNewsDaily

by Paul Wagenseil
July 15, 2013
Dropbox Chinese Hackers Infecting you through Drop Box. Dropbox is one of the better-known cloud-based services.

Dropbox
Chinese Hackers Infecting you through Drop Box. Dropbox is one of the better-known cloud-based services.

Popular cloud-based file-sharing service Dropbox wants to be all things to all people, with big plans to share application metadata — game saves, settings preferences and so forth — as well as raw files across devices and platforms.

But when Dropbox CEO Drew Houston announced last week that Dropbox intends to “replace the hard drive,” he probably didn’t expect Chinese hackers to take him up on it so quickly.

Comment Crew, the same Chinese cyberespionage team thought to be behind the recent attack on The New York Times, has been using publicly shared Dropbox folders to spread malware, reports Arlington, Va., digital-security firm Cyber Squared.

“The attackers have simply registered for a free Dropbox account, uploaded the malicious content and then publicly shared it with their targeted users,” a Cyber Squared blog posting explained last week.

For malicious hackers, Dropbox is an attractive malware distribution platform because it’s widely used in the corporate environment and is unlikely to be blocked by IT security teams.

In this way, Cyber Squared wrote, “the attackers could mask themselves behind the trusted Dropbox brand, increasing credibility and the likelihood of victim interaction with the malicious file from either personal or corporate Dropbox users.”

When a Dropbox file is publicly shared, the persons with whom it’s shared receive emails from Dropbox informing them of the share, along with a link to the file on the Dropbox website.

In the attack Cyber Squared examined, normal procedure was followed, but the shared file was an infected Word document of interest to China’s neighbors, indicating a “spear phishing” attack.

The Word document concerned commercial relations between the United States and the 10 members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, nine of which ring the South China Sea.

Embedded in the Word document was what seemed to be a PDF file on the same topic, but which was really malware exploiting a hole in Adobe Flash Player.

The malware copied itself to the targeted user’s hard drive, then reached out for instructions to a WordPress blog, which itself appeared to be a boring recitation of Asian trade statistics.

But seemingly decorative strings of text nestled among the postings on the WordPress blog were full of meaning.

For example, the strings “@@@@@@207.86.128.60@@@@@@” or “######443######” may not look like much to the untrained eye.

The first string includes an Internet Protocol address, which computers use to find websites; the second string references port 443, which the Internet Protocol sets aside for encrypted Web connections.

The WordPress blog was thus telling the malware where to go for further instructions and which port to connect on. (The URL in the example above is TechNewsDaily’s own.)

Cyber Squared didn’t wait to see what would happen after the malware received its instructions. Previous Comment Crew attacks have included mass penetration of organizational network, theft of intellectual property and other data and installation of spyware to keep track of a targeted user’s online activities and communications.

 

Related Article:

** 8 Simple Tips for Securing Your Computer

 

Direct Link:  http://www.nbcnews.com/technology/dropbox-used-chinese-hackers-spread-malware-6C10642402